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Lithium Ion Battery

Mar. 22, 2021

Lithium Ion Battery

The pioneering work of lithium batteries began in 1912 under the leadership of G.N. Lewis, but it was not until the early 1970s that the first non-rechargeable lithium batteries began to be commercialized. Lithium is the lightest of all metals, has the largest electrochemical potential, and provides the largest weight energy density.

Attempts to develop rechargeable lithium batteries failed due to safety issues. Due to the inherent instability of metallic lithium, especially during the charging process, research has turned to non-metallic lithium batteries that use lithium ions. Although the energy density of lithium ion is slightly lower than that of metal lithium, as long as certain precautions are taken during charging and discharging, lithium ion is safe. In 1991, Sony commercialized the first lithium-ion battery. Other manufacturers have followed suit.

The energy density of lithium ions is usually twice that of standard nickel cadmium ions. It is possible to obtain a higher energy density. The load characteristics are better, and the discharge performance is similar to that of nickel-cadmium. The high battery voltage of 3.6 volts allows the battery pack to be designed with only one battery. Most mobile phones today run on a single phone. A nickel-based battery pack requires three 1.2-volt batteries connected in series.

Lithium-ion battery is a low-maintenance battery, which is an advantage that most other chemical products cannot match. It has no memory and does not require a predetermined cycle to extend the life of the battery. In addition, compared with nickel-cadmium batteries, the self-discharge rate of lithium-ion batteries is less than half, which makes lithium-ion batteries very suitable for modern fuel meter applications. Lithium-ion batteries cause almost no harm when they are disposed.

Although lithium-ion batteries have overall advantages, they also have disadvantages. It is fragile and requires a protection circuit to maintain safe operation. Built into each battery pack, a protection circuit limits the peak voltage of each battery during charging and prevents the battery voltage from dropping too low during discharge. In addition, the battery temperature is monitored to prevent temperature extremes. The maximum charge and discharge current of most packages is limited between 1C and 2C. With these preventive measures, the possibility of overcharging of metal lithium plating has almost been eliminated.

Aging is a problem for most lithium-ion batteries, and many manufacturers remain silent on this issue. Regardless of whether the battery is in use or not, some capacity drops are obvious after one year of use. Batteries often fail after two or three years. It is worth noting that other chemicals also have age-related degenerative effects. This is especially true for nickel metal hydrides if exposed to high ambient temperatures. At the same time, lithium battery packs have been used in some applications for 5 years.

Lithium-ion batteries Manufacturers are constantly improving lithium-ion batteries. New and enhanced chemical combinations are introduced every six months or so. With such rapid progress, it is difficult to assess the degree of aging of the improved battery.

Stored in a cool place can slow down the aging process of lithium ions (and other chemicals). The manufacturer recommends a storage temperature of 15°C (59°F). In addition, the battery should be partially charged during storage.

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